ATMOSPHERE: What is in the Air We Breath?
  • Gas (Oxygen ~20%, Carbon Dioxide 4ppm, Nitrogen, Water, Propane, Methane, Hydrogen Sulfide, Lead Vapor, Formaldehyde, Radon, etc.)
  • Particulate (Pollen, Insect Parts, Dander, Carbonaceous Soot, Asbestos, Mold Spores, Silicates)
Biological Contaminants
  • PATHOGENS (virus, bacteria, mold)
  • IRRITANTS/ALLERGENS (pollen, cat dander, dust mites, mold)
  • TOXINS (Bacterial Endotoxins, Mold Mycotoxins, Microbial Volatile Organic Chemicals or MVOCs)
Today We Are Focused on Mold
  • Few regulations exist that govern Bioaerosols, and even fewer target mold
  • There is a vast amount of new case law, proposed legislation, company policy, heightened consumer awareness and media hype
  • There are no universally applicable standards for conducting mold investigations and/or remediation. Below are some of the generally accepted publications regarding mold.
    • California Assembly Bill 284 (Jackson), ratified October 7, 2001.
    • California Senate Bill 732 (Ortiz), ratified October 7, 2001.
    • California Department of Health Services (Ca-DHS) Fact Sheet “Mold in My Home, What Do I Do?”, 2001.
    • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) “Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control” Book, 1999
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) “Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings”, EPA 402-K-01-001, March 2001 .
    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA “IAQ Tools for Schools”.
    • New York City Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology “Guidelines On Assessment & Remediation Of Fungi In Indoor Environments”.
    • Institute of Inspection, Cleaning & Restoration Certification (IICRC) Document S500
    • World Health Organization (WHO) “Health Guidelines on Biological Agents in the Indoor Environment” (DRAFT as of August 4, 2000)
What is Mold?
  • The kingdom Fungi (one of the five kingdoms of organisms on earth)
  • Estimated around 100,000 species
  • Major decomposer of organic material (detritus)
  • Eukaryotic, spore-bearing organisms that obtain simple organic compounds by absorption.
  • Have no chlorophyll
  • They reproduce both sexually and asexually.
  • Medicine- Penicillin
  • Food Source- Mushrooms, Beer
  • Waste Disposal- Composting
  • Manufacturing- Chemical Farming
  • Filamentous fungi (includes common environmental molds, mushrooms, truffles, mildew, puffballs, fungus, etc.)
  • Unicellular fungi (yeasts)
Generic Microscopic Mold Diagram
Mold Diagram
Up Close & Personal With Common Indoor Molds




FUSARIUM                  CHAETOMIUM






Three basic requirements for mold growth:

Atmosphere (Temperature, Gasses)
Nutrient Source (Food)
Water (The Key to All Life)

  • Irritation

Fungi produce volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) during degradation of substrates that cause the “moldy” odor associated with fungal contamination. These compounds can be irritating to mucous membranes, cause headaches and other symptoms.

  • Allergy

Allergy is the most common symptom associated with exposure to elevated levels of fungi. Most fungi produce antigenic proteins that can cause allergic reactions in allergy sensitive individuals including conjunctivitis, rhinitis, bronchitis, asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The first step in the allergic process is sensitization, which occurs from an initial exposure to an antigen. During the sensitization process there may be no symptoms, however, the body’s immune system produces antibodies to the antigen. Following each additional exposure the antibodies react with the antigen resulting in a release of histamine and other inflammatory response agents. All people produce antibodies, however, certain people with genetic predisposition to allergy, produce significantly greater quantities. Antibody production can continue for years after an encounter with an allergen.

    • Infection

Most fungi are purely saprophytic, using dead or decaying organic matter for food. However, there are approximately 100 species that are known to cause infection in humans. There are three classifications of infection caused by fungi – systemic, opportunistic and dermatophytic.

      • Systemic Infection

The systemic fungal infections include Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis and Paracocidioidomycosis. In most cases infection is initiated when spores are of the fungi that cause these diseases are inhaled. A large majority of these infections are self-limiting and produce minimal or no symptoms. Immune suppressed individuals may develop a chronic localized infection or the disease may disseminate through out the body, which generally proves to be fatal.

      • Opportunistic Infection

Opportunistic infections are generally limited to individuals with impaired immunological defenses, where infection is secondary to a primary disease or condition. The opportunistic fungi are facultative parasites, meaning they can use both living and dead substrates for nutrients. Common opportunistic fungi include species of Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus and Cryp#tococcus.

      • Dermatophytes

Dermatophytes are a group of fungi that can cause superficial and/or subcutaneous infections of the hair, skin and nails. Infection usually occurs through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly by sharing clothes, grooming utensils, towels, etc. Some common dermatophytes include toenail fungus, ring worms, athletes foot, thrush, yeast infection.

    • Toxicosis

Most fungi produce toxic metabolites during digestion called mycotoxins. These toxins are believed to be present in the largest quantities in the spores, which need not be viable to contain them. The most widely recognized mycotoxins are aflatoxin, sterigma#tocystin and ochratoxin, produced predominantly by Aspergillus and Penicillium species and T-2 toxin, vomitoxin, fumonisin, zearalenone and other tricothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium and Stachybotrys species. There are numerous other mycotoxins produced by a wide variety of fungi, of which the health effects remain unknown. Generally mycotoxins are nonvolatile and inhalation exposure usually occurs only after disturbance of a contaminated source. Symptoms of exposure to mycotoxins include cold and flu like symptoms,

What is Synergy?
  • Severity of reactions depends upon the individual?s sensitivity to each biological contaminant, concentration and duration of exposure.
    • Combinations of biological contaminants working in concert can produce synergistic adverse health effects more sever than the sum of combined individual reactions.
How Does Mold Reach Your Body?
  • Hand-To-Mouth
  • Inhalation Of Gases
  • Inhalation Of Particulate
Respiratory System
How is Mold Detected?
Viable vs. Non-Viable
Dead mold can produce the same health effects as live mold (with one exception; non-viable mold cannot produce a systemic infection
Dead mold releases mycotoxins during decomposition
Spores dont die with bleach
Chemicals that kill spores kill people
Mold will regrow in an area of previous mold growth
Common Analytical Devices
  • Surface
    • Swab
    • Tape Lift
    • Bulk
    • Air
Impact SamplerImpact Sampler


Zefon Air-O-Cell Cassette

New Sampling Technology
  • New to the market are methods for the field collection and laboratory detection of detection of Mycotoxins
  • Coming soon: Identification of mold spores by DNA called PCR



The Psychosis of Indoor Air Quality
  • “So I have got mold, what does that mean? Do I run away kicking and screaming?”
    • People Fear What They Do Not Understand
    • Provide Clear Work Procedures
    • Keep Them Away, But Keep Them Informed
    • Document Work Activities (Pre & Post)
    • Provide Objective Analytical Data


Getting Rid of Mold: General Recommendations
  • The water source(s) should be confirmed and repaired.
  • Select a contractor that is knowledgeable and trained in conducting the required work perform all mold related services. The selected contractor should use state of the art engineering controls (pre-cleaning, work area isolation, negative pressure enclosure, HEPA air filtration, decontamination chambers, signage, etc.) and personal protective equipment while performing said services.
  • Work should be in compliance with the most applicable industry standard EPA recommendation “Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings” EPA 402-K-01-001 dated March 2001 document.
  • Isolate and negatively pressurize the work area.
  • Install HEPA equipped air scrubbing devices in the work area.
  • Asbestos and Lead Based Paint testing should be performed on those building materials installed before 1980 that are in poor condition or are scheduled for disturbance.
  • Discard visibly mold affected porous contents (i.e. clothes, upholstered furniture, etc.).
  • HEPA vacuum, dust and wet wipe contents in the work area not demonstrating visible mold. Specialty cleaning using HEPA technology is recommended to reduce the number of settled spore on surfaces of porous and nonporous contents not demonstrating the presence of visible mold growth. This includes cleaning couches, clothes, bedding, bookshelves, tables, etc. This does not include items inside tightly sealed boxes or inside drawers. Wet wiping and/or HEPA vacuuming should effectively reduce the settled mold spore count on surfaces to background levels.
  • Until the moisture content of building materials measures below 15%, implement mechanical drying methods (dehumidifiers/drying fans/air exchanges/area isolation/etc.)
  • The residents should not be home during the hours of gross mold abatement and waste bag out.
  • Remove and discard mold-affected porous building products (i.e. drywall, fiberglass, carpet, etc.) supporting the visible growth of mold. The areas visibly affected by mold plus a 2-foot buffer in every direction should be removed and replaced.
  • Scrub visible mold and water staining from structurally un-compromised wooden structural members plus a 2-foot buffer in every direction. Compromised structural should be removed and replaced. Consult with a structural engineer prior to removing any structural member.
  • Wipe clean and disinfect mold growth on surfaces of any non-porous building materials or nonporous contents (i.e. metal, porcelain, etc.).
  • HEPA vacuum, dust and wet wipe building materials in the work area without visible mold growth or staining. Wet wiping and/or HEPA vacuuming should effectively reduce the settled mold spore count on surfaces to background levels. Specialty cleaning using HEPA technology is recommended to reduce the number of settled spore on the horizontal surfaces of porous and nonporous building materials not demonstrating the presence of visible mold growth. This includes cleaning carpet, cabinetry, toilets, etc.
Final clearance testing criteria
  • Final clearance testing, both visual and analytical, should be performed to confirm a return to background environmental conditions. HEPA air filtration and negative air machines should be turned off and covered 12-24 hours prior to clearance testing. Biocide paint or colored growth inhibitor products should not be applied prior to clearance testing.
    • CSC evaluates post mold abatement inspections on four (4) criteria. If all four (4) of these criteria are met the post mold abatement is acceptable (passes). If any of the criteria is not met the post mold abatement is not acceptable (fails).
Clearance Criteria
  • Absence of visible mold and fungus within the containment
  • Absence of visible dust and debris within the containment
  • Moisture content of building materials less than 15% within the containment
  • Balance of airborne spores inside the containment when compared to airborne spores outside the containment based on both the total spore count and the hierarchy of spores detected.
Why Protect Workers?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued:

  • The Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act)(29 U.S.C. 651 et seq.; 29 CFR 1900 to end) General duty clause of the 1970 OSH Act requires employers to provide a work environment “free from recognized hazards.”
  • The “Hazard Communication? in 1983 that applies to employers in the manufacturing sector of industry. The scope of the rule was expanded in 1987 to include employers in the non-manufacturing sector. The 1987 Hazard Communication Standard called for employers to inform employees of chemical work-place hazards, including carcinogens, sensitizers and neurotoxins.
  • Respirator
  • Gloves
  • Goggles
  • Disposable Coveralls
  • Decontamination Station
  • Aseptic Techniques
  • Common Sense
  • Area Isolation (Plastic Sheeting)
  • Negative Pressurization (Air Filtration Devices {AFDs})
  • Decontamination Chambers
  • Dilution (Four Air Changes Per Hour)
  • Air Filtration (HEPA Equipped AFDs)
  • Desiccation or Dehumidification (Fans, De-humidifiers, Air Exchanges)
  • Controlled Waste Bag-Out
  • Rapid Response Time (8-24 hrs)
  • Water Extraction
  • Drying Procedures
  • Demolition & Disinfection
  • *NOTE: Train your restoration contractors to identify mold and to respond appropriately.
Wet Materials Flow Chart
Wet Materials Flow Chart
Drying Equipment

Drying Fan









IICRC / American Indoor Air Quality Council
Clark Seif Clark, Inc.


For over 20 years, Clark Seif Clark’s highly qualified Team has been providing a broad range of hazardous materials and health & safety compliance professional services to resolve complex environmental issues.  The cornerstone of our ability to meet client goals and objectives is our commitment to Value Engineering.  Our staff is highly motivated and successful at providing the most cost-effective approach when conducting environmental surveys; performing hazard assessments; preparing remediation and abatement work plans; and representing our client’s  best interests when providing field oversight of third-party contractors to ensure the quality of their work and conducting negotiations with regulatory authorities.

Contact us to learn how we can identify the best solution to your environmental concerns.